Neurological Disorders – Parkinson’s Disease

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Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive movement disorder that results from the loss of substantia nigra and dopamine producing cells. The four primary symptoms of PD are tremor, or trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face; rigidity, or stiffness of the limbs and trunk; bradykinesia, or slowness of movement; and postural instability, or impaired balance and coordination. There are a number of animal models that attempt to mimic the symptoms of PD, including chemical induced lesion models and transgenic models.

There are three current techniques for producing in vivo models of Parkinson’s Disease pharmacologically: unilateral (or bilateral) lesioning with 6-hydroxydopamine (rats and mice), systemic injection of 1-methyl 4-phenyltetrahydropyridine (MPTP)(mice and monkeys), and systemic injection of rotenone (rats). Psychogenics established and offers two of these models.

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PsychoGenics Publications

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The total number of errors (including reference memory and working memory errors) decreases over 4 days of training.


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